**Reference: Z. Ramzi, P. Ciuciu and J.-L. Starck. “Benchmarking proximal methods acceleration enhancements for CS-acquired MR image analysis reconstruction ”, SPARS, 2019**

# Category: Statistical Methods Publications

Publications related to signal processing and statistical methods.

## Semi-supervised dictionary learning with graph regularization and active points

Posted on by Jean-Luc Starck

Authors: | Khanh-Hung Tran, Fred-Maurice Ngole-Mboula, J-L. Starck |

Journal: | SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences |

Year: | 2020 |

DOI: | 10.1137/19M1285469 |

Download: | arXiv |

## Abstract

Supervised Dictionary Learning has gained much interest in the recent decade and has shown significant performance improvements in image classification. However, in general, supervised learning needs a large number of labelled samples per class to achieve an acceptable result. In order to deal with databases which have just a few labelled samples per class, semi-supervised learning, which also exploits unlabelled samples in training phase is used. Indeed, unlabelled samples can help to regularize the learning model, yielding an improvement of classification accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new semi-supervised dictionary learning method based on two pillars: on one hand, we enforce manifold structure preservation from the original data into sparse code space using Locally Linear Embedding, which can be considered a regularization of sparse code; on the other hand, we train a semi-supervised classifier in sparse code space. We show that our approach provides an improvement over state-of-the-art semi-supervised dictionary learning methods

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## Deep Learning for space-variant deconvolution in galaxy surveys

Posted on by Jean-Luc Starck

Authors: | Florent Sureau, Alexis Lechat, J-L. Starck |

Journal: | Astronomy and Astrophysics |

Year: | 2020 |

DOI: | 10.1051/0004-6361/201937039 |

Download: | ADS | arXiv |

## Abstract

The deconvolution of large survey images with millions of galaxies requires developing a new generation of methods that can take a space-variant point spread function into account. These methods have also to be accurate and fast. We investigate how deep learning might be used to perform this task. We employed a U-net deep neural network architecture to learn parameters that were adapted for galaxy image processing in a supervised setting and studied two deconvolution strategies. The first approach is a post-processing of a mere Tikhonov deconvolution with closed-form solution, and the second approach is an iterative deconvolution framework based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Our numerical results based on GREAT3 simulations with realistic galaxy images and point spread functions show that our two approaches outperform standard techniques that are based on convex optimization, whether assessed in galaxy image reconstruction or shape recovery. The approach based on a Tikhonov deconvolution leads to the most accurate results, except for ellipticity errors at high signal-to-noise ratio. The ADMM approach performs slightly better in this case. Considering that the Tikhonov approach is also more computation-time efficient in processing a large number of galaxies, we recommend this approach in this scenario.

In the spirit of reproducible research, the codes will be made freely available on the CosmoStat website (http://www.cosmostat.org). The testing datasets will also be provided to repeat the experiments performed in this paper.

## Benchmarking MRI Reconstruction Neural Networks on Large Public Datasets

Posted on by Jean-Luc Starck

**Reference: Z. Ramzi, P. Ciuciu and J.-L. Starck. “Benchmarking MRI reconstruction neural networks on large public datasets ”, Applied Sciences, 10, 1816, 2020. doi:10.3390/app10051816**

## The first Deep Learning reconstruction of dark matter maps from weak lensing observational data

Posted on by Jean-Luc Starck

### DeepMass: The first Deep Learning reconstruction of dark matter maps from weak lensing observational data (DES SV weak lensing data)

### DeepMass

This is the first reconstruction of dark matter maps from weak lensing observational data using deep learning. We train a convolution neural network (CNN) with a Unet based architecture on over 3.6 x 10^5 simulated data realisations with non-Gaussian shape noise and with cosmological parameters varying over a broad prior distribution. Our DeepMass method is substantially more accurate than existing mass-mapping methods. With a validation set of 8000 simulated DES SV data realisations, compared to Wiener filtering with a fixed power spectrum, the DeepMass method improved the mean-square-error (MSE) by 11 per cent. With N-body simulated MICE mock data, we show that Wiener filtering with the optimal known power spectrum still gives a worse MSE than our generalised method with no input cosmological parameters; we show that the improvement is driven by the non-linear structures in the convergence. With higher galaxy density in future weak lensing data unveiling more non-linear scales, it is likely that deep learning will be a leading approach for mass mapping with Euclid and LSST.

**Reference 1: ** N. Jeffrey, F. Lanusse, O. Lahav, J.-L. Starck, "Learning dark matter map reconstructions from DES SV weak lensing data", **Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, in press, **2019.

## Euclid: Non-parametric point spread function field recovery through interpolation on a Graph Laplacian

Posted on by Jean-Luc Starck

Authors: | M.A. Schmitz, J.-L. Starck, F. Ngole Mboula, N. Auricchio, J. Brinchmann, R.I. Vito Capobianco, R. Clédassou, L. Conversi, L. Corcione, N. Fourmanoit, M. Frailis, B. Garilli, F. Hormuth, D. Hu, H. Israel, S. Kermiche, T. D. Kitching, B. Kubik, M. Kunz, S. Ligori, P.B. Lilje, I. Lloro, O. Mansutti, O. Marggraf, R.J. Massey, F. Pasian, V. Pettorino, F. Raison, J.D. Rhodes, M. Roncarelli, R.P. Saglia, P. Schneider, S. Serrano, A.N. Taylor, R. Toledo-Moreo, L. Valenziano, C. Vuerli, J. Zoubian |

Journal: | submitted to A&A |

Year: | 2019 |

Download: | arXiv |

## Abstract

*Context*. Future weak lensing surveys, such as the Euclid mission, will attempt to measure the shapes of billions of galaxies in order to derive cosmological information. These surveys will attain very low levels of statistical error and systematic errors must be extremely well controlled. In particular, the point spread function (PSF) must be estimated using stars in the field, and recovered with high accuracy.

*Aims*. This paper's contributions are twofold. First, we take steps toward a non-parametric method to address the issue of recovering the PSF field, namely that of finding the correct PSF at the position of any galaxy in the field, applicable to Euclid. Our approach relies solely on the data, as opposed to parametric methods that make use of our knowledge of the instrument. Second, we study the impact of imperfect PSF models on the shape measurement of galaxies themselves, and whether common assumptions about this impact hold true in a Euclid scenario.

*Methods*. We use the recently proposed Resolved Components Analysis approach to deal with the undersampling of observed star images. We then estimate the PSF at the positions of galaxies by interpolation on a set of graphs that contain information relative to its spatial variations. We compare our approach to PSFEx, then quantify the impact of PSF recovery errors on galaxy shape measurements through image simulations.

*Results*. Our approach yields an improvement over PSFEx in terms of PSF model and on observed galaxy shape errors, though it is at present not sufficient to reach the required Euclid accuracy. We also find that different shape measurement approaches can react differently to the same PSF modelling errors.

## Blind separation of a large number of sparse sources

Posted on by Samuel Farrens

Authors: | C. Kervazo, J. Bobin, C. Chenot |

Journal: | Signal Processing |

Year: | 2018 |

Download: | Paper |

## Abstract

Blind Source Separation (BSS) is one of the major tools to analyze multispectral data with applications that range from astronomical to biomedical signal processing. Nevertheless, most BSS methods fail when the number of sources becomes *large*, typically exceeding a few tens. Since the ability to estimate large number of sources is paramount in a very wide range of applications, we introduce a new algorithm, coined block-Generalized Morphological Component Analysis (bGMCA) to specifically tackle sparse BSS problems when large number of sources need to be estimated. Sparse BSS being a challenging nonconvex inverse problem in nature, the role played by the algorithmic strategy is central, especially when many sources have to be estimated. For that purpose, the bGMCA algorithm builds upon block-coordinate descent with intermediate size blocks. Numerical experiments are provided that show the robustness of the bGMCA algorithm when the sources are numerous. Comparisons have been carried out on realistic simulations of spectroscopic data.

## Distinguishing standard and modified gravity cosmologies with machine learning

Posted on by Samuel Farrens

### Distinguishing standard and modified gravity cosmologies with machine learning

Authors: | A. Peel, F. Lalande, J.-L. Starck, V. Pettorino, J. Merten, C. Giocoli, M. Meneghetti, M. Baldi |

Journal: | PRD |

Year: | 2019 |

Download: | ADS | arXiv |

## Abstract

We present a convolutional neural network to classify distinct cosmological scenarios based on the statistically similar weak-lensing maps they generate. Modified gravity (MG) models that include massive neutrinos can mimic the standard concordance model (ΛCDM) in terms of Gaussian weak-lensing observables. An inability to distinguish viable models that are based on different physics potentially limits a deeper understanding of the fundamental nature of cosmic acceleration. For a fixed redshift of sources, we demonstrate that a machine learning network trained on simulated convergence maps can discriminate between such models better than conventional higher-order statistics. Results improve further when multiple source redshifts are combined. To accelerate training, we implement a novel data compression strategy that incorporates our prior knowledge of the morphology of typical convergence map features. Our method fully distinguishes ΛCDM from its most similar MG model on noise-free data, and it correctly identifies among the MG models with at least 80% accuracy when using the full redshift information. Adding noise lowers the correct classification rate of all models, but the neural network still significantly outperforms the peak statistics used in a previous analysis.

## On the dissection of degenerate cosmologies with machine learning

Posted on by Samuel Farrens

### On the dissection of degenerate cosmologies with machine learning

Authors: | J. Merten, C. Giocoli, M. Baldi, M. Meneghetti, A. Peel, F. Lalande, J.-L. Starck, V. Pettorino |

Journal: | MNRAS |

Year: | 2019 |

Download: | ADS | arXiv |

## Abstract

Based on the DUSTGRAIN-pathfinder suite of simulations, we investigate observational degeneracies between nine models of modified gravity and massive neutrinos. Three types of machine learning techniques are tested for their ability to discriminate lensing convergence maps by extracting dimensional reduced representations of the data. Classical map descriptors such as the power spectrum, peak counts and Minkowski functionals are combined into a joint feature vector and compared to the descriptors and statistics that are common to the field of digital image processing. To learn new features directly from the data we use a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). For the mapping between feature vectors and the predictions of their underlying model, we implement two different classifiers; one based on a nearest-neighbour search and one that is based on a fully connected neural network. We find that the neural network provides a much more robust classification than the nearest-neighbour approach and that the CNN provides the most discriminating representation of the data. It achieves the cleanest separation between the different models and the highest classification success rate of 59% for a single source redshift. Once we perform a tomographic CNN analysis, the total classification accuracy increases significantly to 76% with no observational degeneracies remaining. Visualising the filter responses of the CNN at different network depths provides us with the unique opportunity to learn from very complex models and to understand better why they perform so well.

## Blind separation of a large number of sparse sources

Posted on by Samuel Farrens

Authors: | C. Kervazo, J. Bobin, C. Chenot |

Journal: | Signal Processing |

Year: | 2018 |

Download: | Paper |

## Abstract

Blind Source Separation (BSS) is one of the major tools to analyze multispectral data with applications that range from astronomical to biomedical signal processing. Nevertheless, most BSS methods fail when the number of sources becomes *large*, typically exceeding a few tens. Since the ability to estimate large number of sources is paramount in a very wide range of applications, we introduce a new algorithm, coined block-Generalized Morphological Component Analysis (bGMCA) to specifically tackle sparse BSS problems when large number of sources need to be estimated. Sparse BSS being a challenging nonconvex inverse problem in nature, the role played by the algorithmic strategy is central, especially when many sources have to be estimated. For that purpose, the bGMCA algorithm builds upon block-coordinate descent with intermediate size blocks. Numerical experiments are provided that show the robustness of the bGMCA algorithm when the sources are numerous. Comparisons have been carried out on realistic simulations of spectroscopic data.