Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

Authors: V. Scottez, Y. Mellier, B. Granett, T. Moutard, M. Kilbinger et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2016
Download: ADS | arXiv

 


Abstract

We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by Ménard et al. when applied to VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clustering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state-of-the-art spectroscopic measurements with iAB < 22.5 from the VIPERS as reference population to infer the redshift distribution of galaxies from the CFHTLS T0007 release. VIPERS provides a nearly representative sample to a flux limit of iAB < 22.5 at a redshift of >0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean colour-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the reference and we give an estimate of the colour-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large-redshift surveys which require a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

The XXL Survey

First round of papers published

The XXL Survey is a deep X-ray survey observed with the XMM satellite, covering two fields of 25 deg2 each. Observations in many other wavelength, from radio to IR and optical, in both imaging and spectroscopy, complement the survey. The main science case is cosmology with X-ray selected galaxy clusters, but other fields such as galaxy evolution, AGNs, cluster physics, and the large-scale structure are being studied.

The main paper (Paper I) describing the survey and giving an overview of the science is arXiv:1512.04317 (Pierre et al. 2015). Paper IV (arxiv.org:1512.03857, Lieu et al. 2015) presents weak-lensing mass measurements of the brightest clusters in the Northern field, using CFHTLenS shapes and photometric redshifts.

 

The mass-temperature relation for XXL and other surveys (CCCP, COSMOS), Lieu et al (2015).

A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts II. Parameter constraint strategies

Authors: C. Lin, M. Kilbinger
Journal: A&A
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Peak counts have been shown to be an excellent tool to extract the non-Gaussian part of the weak lensing signal. Recently, we developped a fast stochastic forward model to predict weak-lensing peak counts. Our model is able to reconstruct the underlying distribution of observables for analyses. In this work, we explore and compare various strategies for constraining parameter using our model, focusing on the matter density Ωm and the density fluctuation amplitude σ8. First, we examine the impact from the cosmological dependency of covariances (CDC). Second, we perform the analysis with the copula likelihood, a technique which makes a weaker assumption compared to the Gaussian likelihood. Third, direct, non-analytic parameter estimations are applied using the full information of the distribution. Fourth, we obtain constraints with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), an efficient, robust, and likelihood-free algorithm based on accept-reject sampling. We find that neglecting the CDC effect enlarges parameter contours by 22%, and that the covariance-varying copula likelihood is a very good approximation to the true likelihood. The direct techniques work well in spite of noisier contours. Concerning ABC, the iterative process converges quickly to a posterior distribution that is in an excellent agreement with results from our other analyses. The time cost for ABC is reduced by two orders of magnitude. The stochastic nature of our weak-lensing peak count model allows us to use various techniques that approach the true underlying probability distribution of observables, without making simplifying assumptions. Our work can be generalized to other observables where forward simulations provide samples of the underlying distribution.

CFHTLenS: weak lensing constraints on the ellipticity of galaxy-scale matter haloes and the galaxy-halo misalignment

Authors: T. Schrabback et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present weak lensing constraints on the ellipticity of galaxy-scale matter haloes and the galaxy-halo misalignment. Using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), we measure the weighted-average ratio of the aligned projected ellipticity components of galaxy matter haloes and their embedded galaxies,

fhf_\mathrm{h}

, split by galaxy type. We then compare our observations to measurements taken from the Millennium Simulation, assuming different models of galaxy-halo misalignment. Using the Millennium Simulation we verify that the statistical estimator used removes contamination from cosmic shear. We also detect an additional signal in the simulation, which we interpret as the impact of intrinsic shape-shear alignments between the lenses and their large-scale structure environment. These alignments are likely to have caused some of the previous observational constraints on

fhf_\mathrm{h}

to be biased high. From CFHTLenS we find

fh=0.04±0.25f_\mathrm{h}=-0.04 \pm 0.25

for early-type galaxies, which is consistent with current models for the galaxy-halo misalignment predicting

fh0.20f_\mathrm{h}\simeq 0.20

. For late-type galaxies we measure

fh=0.690.36+0.37f_\mathrm{h}=0.69_{-0.36}^{+0.37}

from CFHTLenS. This can be compared to the simulated results which yield

fh0.02f_\mathrm{h}\simeq 0.02

for misaligned late-type models.

CFHTLenS: A Gaussian likelihood is a sufficient approximation for a cosmological analysis of third-order cosmic shear statistics

Authors: P. Simon, ... , M. Kilbinger,  et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We study the correlations of the shear signal between triplets of sources in the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) to probe cosmological parameters via the matter bispectrum. In contrast to previous studies, we adopted a non-Gaussian model of the data likelihood which is supported by our simulations of the survey. We find that for state-of-the-art surveys, similar to CFHTLenS, a Gaussian likelihood analysis is a reasonable approximation, albeit small differences in the parameter constraints are already visible. For future surveys we expect that a Gaussian model becomes inaccurate. Our algorithm for a refined non-Gaussian analysis and data compression is then of great utility especially because it is not much more elaborate if simulated data are available. Applying this algorithm to the third-order correlations of shear alone in a blind analysis, we find a good agreement with the standard cosmological model: Σ8=σ8 (Ωm/0.27)0.64=0.79+0.080.11 for a flat ΛCDMcosmology with h=0.7±0.04 (68% credible interval). Nevertheless our models provide only moderately good fits as indicated by χ2/dof=2.9, including a 20% r.m.s. uncertainty in the predicted signal amplitude. The models cannot explain a signal drop on scales around 15 arcmin, which may be caused by systematics. It is unclear whether the discrepancy can be fully explained by residual PSF systematics of which we find evidence at least on scales of a few arcmin. Therefore we need a better understanding of higher-order correlations of cosmic shear and their systematics to confidently apply them as cosmological probes.

Review: Cosmology from cosmic shear observations

Martin Kilbinger, CEA Saclay, Service d'Astrophysique (SAp), France

Find on this page general information and updates for my recent review article (arXiv:1411.0155) on cosmic shear, Reports on Progress in Physics 78 (2015) 086901 (ads link for two-column format).

Sigma 12/17
Fig. 7 of the review article: The quantity \Sigma = \sigma_8 \left( \Omega_{\rm m}/0.3 \right)^\alpha as function of publication year.
 
 
 
Updated figure!
02/2015: Added Stripe-82 and CFHTLenS peak counts
07/2015: Added DES-SV.
06/2016: Added DLS, two more CFHTLenS analyses, DES-SV peak counts, and KiDS-450.
08/2017: Added DES-Y1, and another KiDS-450 result.
12/2017: Added more KiDS-450 and DES-Y1 results (peak counts, lensing+clustering, density-split statistic).
 
 
 
 

In the video abstract of the article I talk about cosmic shear and the review for a broader audience.
 
 
 
 
Additional references, new papers
General papers, new reviews.
 
    • Another weak-lensing review has been published by my colleagues Liping Fu and Zu-Hui Fan (behind a pay wall, not available on the arXiv).
    • Rachel Mandelbaum's short, pedagogical review to instrumental systematics and WL

 Sect. 2: Cosmological background

 Sect. 5: Measuring weak lensing

    • News on ensemble shape measurement methods:
      An implementation of the Bernstein &amp; Armstrong (2014) Bayesian shape method has been published at arXiv:1403.7669. The team that participated at the great3 challenge with the Bayesian inference method "MBI" published their pipeline and results paper, see arXiv:1411.2608.
    • Okura & Futamase (arXiv:1405.1539) came up with an estimator of ellipticity that uses 0th instead of 2nd-order moments!
    • arXiv:1409.6273 discusses atmospheric chromatic effects for LSST.
    • Dust in spiral galaxies  as source of shape bias, but also astrophysical probe: arXiv:1411.6724.

Scripts

Fig. 3 (b), derivatives of the convergence power spectrum with respect to various cosmological parameters.
cs_review_scripts.tgz.


Comments and suggestions are welcome! Please write to me at martin.kilbinger@cea.fr.

Last updated 22 July 2015.

A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts I. Comparison with N-body Simulations

Authors: C. Lin, M. Kilbinger
Journal: A&A
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Weak-lensing peak counts has been shown to be a powerful tool for cosmology. It provides non-Gaussian information of large scale structures, complementary to second order statistics. We propose a new flexible method to predict weak lensing peak counts, which can be adapted to realistic scenarios, such as a real source distribution, intrinsic galaxy alignment, mask effects, photo-z errors from surveys, etc. The new model is also suitable for applying the tomography technique and non-linear filters. A probabilistic approach to model peak counts is presented. First, we sample halos from a mass function. Second, we assign them NFW profiles. Third, we place those halos randomly on the field of view. The creation of these "fast simulations" requires much less computing time compared to N-body runs. Then, we perform ray-tracing through these fast simulation boxes and select peaks from weak-lensing maps to predict peak number counts. The computation is achieved by our \textsc{Camelus} algorithm, which we make available at this http URL . We compare our results to N-body simulations to validate our model. We find that our approach is in good agreement with full N-body runs. We show that the lensing signal dominates shape noise and Poisson noise for peaks with SNR between 4 and 6. Also, counts from the same SNR range are sensitive to Ωm and σ8. We show how our model can discriminate between various combinations of those two parameters. In summary, we offer a powerful tool to study weak lensing peaks. The potential of our forward model is its high flexibility, making the use of peak counts under realistic survey conditions feasible.

The galaxy-halo connection from a joint lensing, clustering and abundance analysis in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field

Authors: J. Coupon et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present new constraints on the relationship between galaxies and their host dark matter halos, measured from the location of the peak of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), up to the most massive galaxy clusters at redshift

z0.8z\sim0.8

and over a volume of nearly 0.1~Gpc

3^3

. We use a unique combination of deep observations in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field from the near-UV to the near-IR, supplemented by

60000\sim60\,000

secure spectroscopic redshifts, analysing galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing and the stellar mass function. We interpret our measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework, separating the contributions from central and satellite galaxies. We find that the SHMR for the central galaxies peaks at

Mh,peak=1.90.1+0.2×1012MM_{\rm h, peak} = 1.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1}\times10^{12} M_{\odot}

with an amplitude of

0.0250.025

, which decreases to

0.001\sim0.001

for massive halos (

Mh>1014MM_{\rm h} > 10^{14} M_{\odot}

). Compared to central galaxies only, the total SHMR (including satellites) is boosted by a factor 10 in the high-mass regime (cluster-size halos), a result consistent with cluster analyses from the literature based on fully independent methods. After properly accounting for differences in modelling, we have compared our results with a large number of results from the literature up to

z=1z=1

: we find good general agreement, independently of the method used, within the typical stellar-mass systematic errors at low to intermediate mass (

M<1011M{M}_{\star} < 10^{11} M_{\odot}

) and the statistical errors above. We have also compared our SHMR results to semi-analytic simulations and found that the SHMR is tilted compared to our measurements in such a way that they over- (under-) predict star formation efficiency in central (satellite) galaxies.

A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts I. Comparison with N-body Simulations

Authors: C.-A. Lin, M. Kilbinger.
Journal: A&A 576, A24
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv

 


Abstract

Weak-lensing peak counts has been shown to be a powerful tool for cosmology. It provides non-Gaussian information of large scale structures, complementary to second order statistics. We propose a new flexible method to predict weak lensing peak counts, which can be adapted to realistic scenarios, such as a real source distribution, intrinsic galaxy alignment, mask effects, photo-z errors from surveys, etc. The new model is also suitable for applying the tomography technique and non-linear filters. A probabilistic approach to model peak counts is presented. First, we sample halos from a mass function. Second, we assign them NFW profiles. Third, we place those halos randomly on the field of view. The creation of these "fast simulations" requires much less computing time compared to N-body runs. Then, we perform ray-tracing through these fast simulation boxes and select peaks from weak-lensing maps to predict peak number counts. The computation is achieved by our \textsc{Camelus} algorithm, which we make available at this http URL. We compare our results to N-body simulations to validate our model. We find that our approach is in good agreement with full N-body runs. We show that the lensing signal dominates shape noise and Poisson noise for peaks with SNR between 4 and 6. Also, counts from the same SNR range are sensitive to Ωm and σ8. We show how our model can discriminate between various combinations of those two parameters. In summary, we offer a powerful tool to study weak lensing peaks. The potential of our forward model is its high flexibility, making the use of peak counts under realistic survey conditions feasible.


Summary

A new, probabilistic model for weak-lensing peak counts is being proposed in this first paper of a series of three. The model is based on drawing halos from the mass function and, via ray-tracing, generating weak-lensing maps to count peaks. These simulated maps can directly be compared to observations, making this a forward-modelling approach of the cluster mass function, in contrast to many other traditional methods using cluster probes such as X-ray, optical richness, or SZ observations.

The model prediction is in very good agreement with N-body simulations.

It is very flexible, and can potentially include astrophysical and observational effects, such as intrinsic alignment, halo triaxiality, masking, photo-z errors, etc. Moreover, the pdf of the number of peaks can be output by the model, allowing for a very general likelihood calculation, without e.g. assuming a Gaussian distribution of the observables.

 

3D Cosmic Shear: Cosmology from CFHTLenS

Authors: T. D. Kitching, ... , M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2014
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

This paper presents the first application of 3D cosmic shear to a wide-field weak lensing survey. 3D cosmic shear is a technique that analyses weak lensing in three dimensions using a spherical harmonic approach, and does not bin data in the redshift direction. This is applied to CFHTLenS, a 154 square degree imaging survey with a median redshift of 0.7 and an effective number density of 11 galaxies per square arcminute usable for weak lensing. To account for survey masks we apply a 3D pseudo-Cl approach on weak lensing data, and to avoid uncertainties in the highly non-linear regime, we separately analyse radial wave numbers k<=1.5h/Mpc and k<=5.0h/Mpc, and angular wavenumbers l~400-5000. We show how one can recover 2D and tomographic power spectra from the full 3D cosmic shear power spectra and present a measurement of the 2D cosmic shear power spectrum, and measurements of a set of 2-bin and 6-bin cosmic shear tomographic power spectra; in doing so we find that using the 3D power in the calculation of such 2D and tomographic power spectra from data naturally accounts for a minimum scale in the matter power spectrum. We use 3D cosmic shear to constrain cosmologies with parameters OmegaM, OmegaB, sigma8, h, ns, w0, wa. For a non-evolving dark energy equation of state, and assuming a flat cosmology, lensing combined with WMAP7 results in h=0.78+/-0.12, OmegaM=0.252+/-0.079, sigma8=0.88+/-0.23 and w=-1.16+/-0.38 using only scales k<=1.5h/Mpc. We also present results of lensing combined with first year Planck results, where we find no tension with the results from this analysis, but we also find no significant improvement over the Planck results alone. We find evidence of a suppression of power compared to LCDM on small scales 1.5 < k < 5.0 h/Mpc in the lensing data, which is consistent with predictions of the effect of baryonic feedback on the matter power spectrum.