The DESI Experiment Part I: Science,Targeting, and Survey Design

 

Authors: DESI collaboration
Journal: ArXiv
Year: 2016
Download: ADS | arXiv

 


Abstract

DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. To trace the underlying dark matter distribution, spectroscopic targets will be selected in four classes from imaging data. We will measure luminous red galaxies up to $z=1.0$. To probe the Universe out to even higher redshift, DESI will target bright [O II] emission line galaxies up to $z=1.7$. Quasars will be targeted both as direct tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution and, at higher redshifts ($ 2.1 < z < 3.5$), for the Ly-$\alpha$ forest absorption features in their spectra, which will be used to trace the distribution of neutral hydrogen. When moonlight prevents efficient observations of the faint targets of the baseline survey, DESI will conduct a magnitude-limited Bright Galaxy Survey comprising approximately 10 million galaxies with a median $z\approx 0.2$. In total, more than 30 million galaxy and quasar redshifts will be obtained to measure the BAO feature and determine the matter power spectrum, including redshift space distortions.

 

 

The DESI Experiment Part II: Instrument Design

 

Authors: DESI collaboration
Journal: ArXiv
Year: 2016
Download: ADS | arXiv

 


Abstract

DESI (Dark Energy Spectropic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. The DESI instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking up to 5,000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 360 nm to 980 nm. The fibers feed ten three-arm spectrographs with resolution

R=λ/ΔλR= λ/Δλ

between 2000 and 5500, depending on wavelength. The DESI instrument will be used to conduct a five-year survey designed to cover 14,000 deg

2^2

. This powerful instrument will be installed at prime focus on the 4-m Mayall telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona, along with a new optical corrector, which will provide a three-degree diameter field of view. The DESI collaboration will also deliver a spectroscopic pipeline and data management system to reduce and archive all data for eventual public use.

 

 

The XXL survey: First results and future

Authors: M. Pierre et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2017
Download: ADS | arXiv

 


Abstract

The XXL survey currently covers two 25 sq. deg. patches with XMM observations of ~10ks. We summarise the scientific results associated with the first release of the XXL data set, that occurred mid 2016. We review several arguments for increasing the survey depth to 40 ks during the next decade of XMM operations. X-ray (z<2) cluster, (z<4) AGN and cosmic background survey science will then benefit from an extraordinary data reservoir. This, combined with deep multi-

λλ

observations, will lead to solid standalone cosmological constraints and provide a wealth of information on the formation and evolution of AGN, clusters and the X-ray background. In particular, it will offer a unique opportunity to pinpoint the z>1 cluster density. It will eventually constitute a reference study and an ideal calibration field for the upcoming eROSITA and Euclid missions.

 

A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts III. Filtering technique comparisons

Authors: C. Lin, M. Kilbinger, S. Pires
Journal: A&A
Year: 2016
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

This is the third in a series of papers that develop a new and flexible model to predict weak-lensing (WL) peak counts, which have been shown to be a very valuable non-Gaussian probe of cosmology. In this paper, we compare the cosmological information extracted from WL peak counts using different filtering techniques of the galaxy shear data, including linear filtering with a Gaussian and two compensated filters (the starlet wavelet and the aperture mass), and the nonlinear filtering method MRLens. We present improvements to our model that account for realistic survey conditions, which are masks, shear-to-convergence transformations, and non-constant noise. We create simulated peak counts from our stochastic model, from which we obtain constraints on the matter density Ωm, the power spectrum normalisation σ8, and the dark-energy parameter w0. We use two methods for parameter inference, a copula likelihood, and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). We measure the contour width in the Ωm-σ8 degeneracy direction and the figure of merit to compare parameter constraints from different filtering techniques. We find that starlet filtering outperforms the Gaussian kernel, and that including peak counts from different smoothing scales helps to lift parameter degeneracies. Peak counts from different smoothing scales with a compensated filter show very little cross-correlation, and adding information from different scales can therefore strongly enhance the available information. Measuring peak counts separately from different scales yields tighter constraints than using a combined peak histogram from a single map that includes multiscale information. Our results suggest that a compensated filter function with counts included separately from different smoothing scales yields the tightest constraints on cosmological parameters from WL peaks.

Clustering-based redshift estimation: application to VIPERS/CFHTLS

Authors: V. Scottez, Y. Mellier, B. Granett, T. Moutard, M. Kilbinger et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2016
Download: ADS | arXiv

 


Abstract

We explore the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift estimation proposed by Ménard et al. when applied to VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) real data. This method enables us to reconstruct redshift distributions from measurement of the angular clustering of objects using a set of secure spectroscopic redshifts. We use state-of-the-art spectroscopic measurements with iAB < 22.5 from the VIPERS as reference population to infer the redshift distribution of galaxies from the CFHTLS T0007 release. VIPERS provides a nearly representative sample to a flux limit of iAB < 22.5 at a redshift of >0.5 which allows us to test the accuracy of the clustering-based redshift distributions. We show that this method enables us to reproduce the true mean colour-redshift relation when both populations have the same magnitude limit. We also show that this technique allows the inference of redshift distributions for a population fainter than the reference and we give an estimate of the colour-redshift mapping in this case. This last point is of great interest for future large-redshift surveys which require a complete faint spectroscopic sample.

The XXL Survey

First round of papers published

The XXL Survey is a deep X-ray survey observed with the XMM satellite, covering two fields of 25 deg2 each. Observations in many other wavelength, from radio to IR and optical, in both imaging and spectroscopy, complement the survey. The main science case is cosmology with X-ray selected galaxy clusters, but other fields such as galaxy evolution, AGNs, cluster physics, and the large-scale structure are being studied.

The main paper (Paper I) describing the survey and giving an overview of the science is arXiv:1512.04317 (Pierre et al. 2015). Paper IV (arxiv.org:1512.03857, Lieu et al. 2015) presents weak-lensing mass measurements of the brightest clusters in the Northern field, using CFHTLenS shapes and photometric redshifts.

 

The mass-temperature relation for XXL and other surveys (CCCP, COSMOS), Lieu et al (2015).

A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts II. Parameter constraint strategies

Authors: C. Lin, M. Kilbinger
Journal: A&A
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Peak counts have been shown to be an excellent tool to extract the non-Gaussian part of the weak lensing signal. Recently, we developped a fast stochastic forward model to predict weak-lensing peak counts. Our model is able to reconstruct the underlying distribution of observables for analyses. In this work, we explore and compare various strategies for constraining parameter using our model, focusing on the matter density Ωm and the density fluctuation amplitude σ8. First, we examine the impact from the cosmological dependency of covariances (CDC). Second, we perform the analysis with the copula likelihood, a technique which makes a weaker assumption compared to the Gaussian likelihood. Third, direct, non-analytic parameter estimations are applied using the full information of the distribution. Fourth, we obtain constraints with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), an efficient, robust, and likelihood-free algorithm based on accept-reject sampling. We find that neglecting the CDC effect enlarges parameter contours by 22%, and that the covariance-varying copula likelihood is a very good approximation to the true likelihood. The direct techniques work well in spite of noisier contours. Concerning ABC, the iterative process converges quickly to a posterior distribution that is in an excellent agreement with results from our other analyses. The time cost for ABC is reduced by two orders of magnitude. The stochastic nature of our weak-lensing peak count model allows us to use various techniques that approach the true underlying probability distribution of observables, without making simplifying assumptions. Our work can be generalized to other observables where forward simulations provide samples of the underlying distribution.

CFHTLenS: weak lensing constraints on the ellipticity of galaxy-scale matter haloes and the galaxy-halo misalignment

Authors: T. Schrabback et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present weak lensing constraints on the ellipticity of galaxy-scale matter haloes and the galaxy-halo misalignment. Using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), we measure the weighted-average ratio of the aligned projected ellipticity components of galaxy matter haloes and their embedded galaxies,

fhf_\mathrm{h}

, split by galaxy type. We then compare our observations to measurements taken from the Millennium Simulation, assuming different models of galaxy-halo misalignment. Using the Millennium Simulation we verify that the statistical estimator used removes contamination from cosmic shear. We also detect an additional signal in the simulation, which we interpret as the impact of intrinsic shape-shear alignments between the lenses and their large-scale structure environment. These alignments are likely to have caused some of the previous observational constraints on

fhf_\mathrm{h}

to be biased high. From CFHTLenS we find

fh=0.04±0.25f_\mathrm{h}=-0.04 \pm 0.25

for early-type galaxies, which is consistent with current models for the galaxy-halo misalignment predicting

fh0.20f_\mathrm{h}\simeq 0.20

. For late-type galaxies we measure

fh=0.690.36+0.37f_\mathrm{h}=0.69_{-0.36}^{+0.37}

from CFHTLenS. This can be compared to the simulated results which yield

fh0.02f_\mathrm{h}\simeq 0.02

for misaligned late-type models.

CFHTLenS: A Gaussian likelihood is a sufficient approximation for a cosmological analysis of third-order cosmic shear statistics

Authors: P. Simon, ... , M. Kilbinger,  et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We study the correlations of the shear signal between triplets of sources in the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) to probe cosmological parameters via the matter bispectrum. In contrast to previous studies, we adopted a non-Gaussian model of the data likelihood which is supported by our simulations of the survey. We find that for state-of-the-art surveys, similar to CFHTLenS, a Gaussian likelihood analysis is a reasonable approximation, albeit small differences in the parameter constraints are already visible. For future surveys we expect that a Gaussian model becomes inaccurate. Our algorithm for a refined non-Gaussian analysis and data compression is then of great utility especially because it is not much more elaborate if simulated data are available. Applying this algorithm to the third-order correlations of shear alone in a blind analysis, we find a good agreement with the standard cosmological model: Σ8=σ8 (Ωm/0.27)0.64=0.79+0.080.11 for a flat ΛCDMcosmology with h=0.7±0.04 (68% credible interval). Nevertheless our models provide only moderately good fits as indicated by χ2/dof=2.9, including a 20% r.m.s. uncertainty in the predicted signal amplitude. The models cannot explain a signal drop on scales around 15 arcmin, which may be caused by systematics. It is unclear whether the discrepancy can be fully explained by residual PSF systematics of which we find evidence at least on scales of a few arcmin. Therefore we need a better understanding of higher-order correlations of cosmic shear and their systematics to confidently apply them as cosmological probes.

Review: Cosmology from cosmic shear observations

Martin Kilbinger, CEA Saclay, Service d’Astrophysique (SAp), France

Find on this page general information and updates for my recent review article (arXiv:1411.0155) on cosmic shear, Reports on Progress in Physics 78 (2015) 086901 (ads link for two-column format).

Sigma 12/17
Fig. 7 of the review article: The quantity $$\Sigma = \sigma_8 \left( \Omega_{\rm m}/0.3 \right)^\alpha$$ as function of publication year.
 
 
 
Updated figure!
02/2015: Added Stripe-82 and CFHTLenS peak counts
07/2015: Added DES-SV.
06/2016: Added DLS, two more CFHTLenS analyses, DES-SV peak counts, and KiDS-450.
08/2017: Added DES-Y1, and another KiDS-450 result.
12/2017: Added more KiDS-450 and DES-Y1 results (peak counts, lensing+clustering, density-split statistic).
 
 
 
 

In the video abstract of the article I talk about cosmic shear and the review for a broader audience.
 
 
 
 
Additional references, new papers
General papers, new reviews.
 
    • Another weak-lensing review has been published by my colleagues Liping Fu and Zu-Hui Fan (behind a pay wall, not available on the arXiv).
    • Rachel Mandelbaum’s short, pedagogical review to instrumental systematics and WL

 Sect. 2: Cosmological background

 Sect. 5: Measuring weak lensing

    • News on ensemble shape measurement methods:
      An implementation of the Bernstein &amp; Armstrong (2014) Bayesian shape method has been published at arXiv:1403.7669. The team that participated at the great3 challenge with the Bayesian inference method “MBI” published their pipeline and results paper, see arXiv:1411.2608.
    • Okura & Futamase (arXiv:1405.1539) came up with an estimator of ellipticity that uses 0th instead of 2nd-order moments!
    • arXiv:1409.6273 discusses atmospheric chromatic effects for LSST.
    • Dust in spiral galaxies  as source of shape bias, but also astrophysical probe: arXiv:1411.6724.

Scripts

Fig. 3 (b), derivatives of the convergence power spectrum with respect to various cosmological parameters.
cs_review_scripts.tgz.


Comments and suggestions are welcome! Please write to me at martin.kilbinger@cea.fr.

Last updated 22 July 2015.