A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts I. Comparison with N-body Simulations

Authors: C. Lin, M. Kilbinger
Journal: A&A
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Weak-lensing peak counts has been shown to be a powerful tool for cosmology. It provides non-Gaussian information of large scale structures, complementary to second order statistics. We propose a new flexible method to predict weak lensing peak counts, which can be adapted to realistic scenarios, such as a real source distribution, intrinsic galaxy alignment, mask effects, photo-z errors from surveys, etc. The new model is also suitable for applying the tomography technique and non-linear filters. A probabilistic approach to model peak counts is presented. First, we sample halos from a mass function. Second, we assign them NFW profiles. Third, we place those halos randomly on the field of view. The creation of these "fast simulations" requires much less computing time compared to N-body runs. Then, we perform ray-tracing through these fast simulation boxes and select peaks from weak-lensing maps to predict peak number counts. The computation is achieved by our \textsc{Camelus} algorithm, which we make available at this http URL . We compare our results to N-body simulations to validate our model. We find that our approach is in good agreement with full N-body runs. We show that the lensing signal dominates shape noise and Poisson noise for peaks with SNR between 4 and 6. Also, counts from the same SNR range are sensitive to Ωm and σ8. We show how our model can discriminate between various combinations of those two parameters. In summary, we offer a powerful tool to study weak lensing peaks. The potential of our forward model is its high flexibility, making the use of peak counts under realistic survey conditions feasible.

The galaxy-halo connection from a joint lensing, clustering and abundance analysis in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field

Authors: J. Coupon et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present new constraints on the relationship between galaxies and their host dark matter halos, measured from the location of the peak of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), up to the most massive galaxy clusters at redshift

z0.8z\sim0.8

and over a volume of nearly 0.1~Gpc

3^3

. We use a unique combination of deep observations in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field from the near-UV to the near-IR, supplemented by

60000\sim60\,000

secure spectroscopic redshifts, analysing galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing and the stellar mass function. We interpret our measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework, separating the contributions from central and satellite galaxies. We find that the SHMR for the central galaxies peaks at

Mh,peak=1.90.1+0.2×1012MM_{\rm h, peak} = 1.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1}\times10^{12} M_{\odot}

with an amplitude of

0.0250.025

, which decreases to

0.001\sim0.001

for massive halos (

Mh>1014MM_{\rm h} > 10^{14} M_{\odot}

). Compared to central galaxies only, the total SHMR (including satellites) is boosted by a factor 10 in the high-mass regime (cluster-size halos), a result consistent with cluster analyses from the literature based on fully independent methods. After properly accounting for differences in modelling, we have compared our results with a large number of results from the literature up to

z=1z=1

: we find good general agreement, independently of the method used, within the typical stellar-mass systematic errors at low to intermediate mass (

M<1011M{M}_{\star} < 10^{11} M_{\odot}

) and the statistical errors above. We have also compared our SHMR results to semi-analytic simulations and found that the SHMR is tilted compared to our measurements in such a way that they over- (under-) predict star formation efficiency in central (satellite) galaxies.

A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts I. Comparison with N-body Simulations

Authors: C.-A. Lin, M. Kilbinger.
Journal: A&A 576, A24
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv

 


Abstract

Weak-lensing peak counts has been shown to be a powerful tool for cosmology. It provides non-Gaussian information of large scale structures, complementary to second order statistics. We propose a new flexible method to predict weak lensing peak counts, which can be adapted to realistic scenarios, such as a real source distribution, intrinsic galaxy alignment, mask effects, photo-z errors from surveys, etc. The new model is also suitable for applying the tomography technique and non-linear filters. A probabilistic approach to model peak counts is presented. First, we sample halos from a mass function. Second, we assign them NFW profiles. Third, we place those halos randomly on the field of view. The creation of these "fast simulations" requires much less computing time compared to N-body runs. Then, we perform ray-tracing through these fast simulation boxes and select peaks from weak-lensing maps to predict peak number counts. The computation is achieved by our \textsc{Camelus} algorithm, which we make available at this http URL. We compare our results to N-body simulations to validate our model. We find that our approach is in good agreement with full N-body runs. We show that the lensing signal dominates shape noise and Poisson noise for peaks with SNR between 4 and 6. Also, counts from the same SNR range are sensitive to Ωm and σ8. We show how our model can discriminate between various combinations of those two parameters. In summary, we offer a powerful tool to study weak lensing peaks. The potential of our forward model is its high flexibility, making the use of peak counts under realistic survey conditions feasible.


Summary

A new, probabilistic model for weak-lensing peak counts is being proposed in this first paper of a series of three. The model is based on drawing halos from the mass function and, via ray-tracing, generating weak-lensing maps to count peaks. These simulated maps can directly be compared to observations, making this a forward-modelling approach of the cluster mass function, in contrast to many other traditional methods using cluster probes such as X-ray, optical richness, or SZ observations.

The model prediction is in very good agreement with N-body simulations.

It is very flexible, and can potentially include astrophysical and observational effects, such as intrinsic alignment, halo triaxiality, masking, photo-z errors, etc. Moreover, the pdf of the number of peaks can be output by the model, allowing for a very general likelihood calculation, without e.g. assuming a Gaussian distribution of the observables.

 

3D Cosmic Shear: Cosmology from CFHTLenS

Authors: T. D. Kitching, ... , M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2014
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

This paper presents the first application of 3D cosmic shear to a wide-field weak lensing survey. 3D cosmic shear is a technique that analyses weak lensing in three dimensions using a spherical harmonic approach, and does not bin data in the redshift direction. This is applied to CFHTLenS, a 154 square degree imaging survey with a median redshift of 0.7 and an effective number density of 11 galaxies per square arcminute usable for weak lensing. To account for survey masks we apply a 3D pseudo-Cl approach on weak lensing data, and to avoid uncertainties in the highly non-linear regime, we separately analyse radial wave numbers k<=1.5h/Mpc and k<=5.0h/Mpc, and angular wavenumbers l~400-5000. We show how one can recover 2D and tomographic power spectra from the full 3D cosmic shear power spectra and present a measurement of the 2D cosmic shear power spectrum, and measurements of a set of 2-bin and 6-bin cosmic shear tomographic power spectra; in doing so we find that using the 3D power in the calculation of such 2D and tomographic power spectra from data naturally accounts for a minimum scale in the matter power spectrum. We use 3D cosmic shear to constrain cosmologies with parameters OmegaM, OmegaB, sigma8, h, ns, w0, wa. For a non-evolving dark energy equation of state, and assuming a flat cosmology, lensing combined with WMAP7 results in h=0.78+/-0.12, OmegaM=0.252+/-0.079, sigma8=0.88+/-0.23 and w=-1.16+/-0.38 using only scales k<=1.5h/Mpc. We also present results of lensing combined with first year Planck results, where we find no tension with the results from this analysis, but we also find no significant improvement over the Planck results alone. We find evidence of a suppression of power compared to LCDM on small scales 1.5 < k < 5.0 h/Mpc in the lensing data, which is consistent with predictions of the effect of baryonic feedback on the matter power spectrum.

CFHTLenS: Cosmological constraints from a combination of cosmic shear two-point and three-point correlations

Authors: L. Fu, M. Kilbinger, T. Erben, C. Heymans,  et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2014
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Higher-order, non-Gaussian aspects of the large-scale structure carry valuable information on structure formation and cosmology, which is complementary to second-order statistics. In this work we measure second- and third-order weak-lensing aperture-mass moments from CFHTLenS and combine those with CMB anisotropy probes. The third moment is measured with a significance of 2σ. The combined constraint on Σ8=σ8(Ωm/0.27)α is improved by 10%, in comparison to the second-order only, and the allowed ranges for Ωm and σ8 are substantially reduced. Including general triangles of the lensing bispectrum yields tighter constraints compared to probing mainly equilateral triangles. Second- and third-order CFHTLenS lensing measurements improve Planck CMB constraints on Ωm and σ8 by 26% for flat ΛCDM. For a model with free curvature, the joint CFHTLenS-Planck result is Ωm=0.28±0.02 (68% confidence), which is an improvement of 43% compared to Planck alone. We test how our results are potentially subject to three astrophysical sources of contamination: source-lens clustering, the intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes, and baryonic effects. We explore future limitations of the cosmological use of third-order weak lensing, such as the nonlinear model and the Gaussianity of the likelihood function.

GLIMPSE: Accurate 3D weak lensing reconstructions using sparsity

Authors: A. Leonard, F. Lanusse, J.-L. Starck
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2014
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present GLIMPSE - Gravitational Lensing Inversion and MaPping with Sparse Estimators - a new algorithm to generate density reconstructions in three dimensions from photometric weak lensing measurements. This is an extension of earlier work in one dimension aimed at applying compressive sensing theory to the inversion of gravitational lensing measurements to recover 3D density maps. Using the assumption that the density can be represented sparsely in our chosen basis - 2D transverse wavelets and 1D line of sight dirac functions - we show that clusters of galaxies can be identified and accurately localised and characterised using this method. Throughout, we use simulated data consistent with the quality currently attainable in large surveys. We present a thorough statistical analysis of the errors and biases in both the redshifts of detected structures and their amplitudes. The GLIMPSE method is able to produce reconstructions at significantly higher resolution than the input data; in this paper we show reconstructions with 6x finer redshift resolution than the shear data. Considering cluster simulations with 0.05 <= z <= 0.75 and 3e13/h Msun <= Mvir <= 1e15/h Msun, we show that the redshift extent of detected peaks is typically 1-2 pixels, or Dz <~ 0.07, and that we are able to recover an unbiased estimator of the redshift of a detected cluster by considering many realisations of the noise. We also recover an accurate estimator of the mass, that is largely unbiased when the redshift is known, and whose bias is constrained to <~ 5% in the majority of our simulations when the estimated redshift is taken to be the true redshift. This shows a substantial improvement over earlier 3D inversion methods, which showed redshift smearing with a typical standard deviation of 0.2-0.3, a significant damping of the amplitude of the peaks detected, and a bias in the detected redshift.

CFHTLenS tomographic weak lensing: Quantifying accurate redshift distributions

Authors: J. Benjamin, L. Van Waerbeke, C. Heymans, M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2013
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) comprises deep multi-colour (u*g'r'i'z') photometry spanning 154 square degrees, with accurate photometric redshifts and shape measurements. We demonstrate that the redshift probability distribution function summed over galaxies provides an accurate representation of the galaxy redshift distribution accounting for random and catastrophic errors for galaxies with best fitting photometric redshifts z_p < 1.3.
We present cosmological constraints using tomographic weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure. We use two broad redshift bins 0.5 < z_p <= 0.85 and 0.85 < z_p <= 1.3 free of intrinsic alignment contamination, and measure the shear correlation function on angular scales in the range ~1-40 arcmin. We show that the problematic redshift scaling of the shear signal, found in previous CFHTLS data analyses, does not afflict the CFHTLenS data. For a flat Lambda-CDM model and a fixed matter density Omega_m=0.27, we find the normalisation of the matter power spectrum sigma_8=0.771 \pm 0.041. When combined with cosmic microwave background data (WMAP7), baryon acoustic oscillation data (BOSS), and a prior on the Hubble constant from the HST distance ladder, we find that CFHTLenS improves the precision of the fully marginalised parameter estimates by an average factor of 1.5-2. Combining our results with the above cosmological probes, we find Omega_m=0.2762 \pm 0.0074 and sigma_8=0.802 \pm 0.013.

CFHTLenS tomographic weak lensing cosmological parameter constraints: Mitigating the impact of intrinsic galaxy alignments

Authors: C. Heymans, E. Grocutt, A. Heavens, M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2013
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present a finely-binned tomographic weak lensing analysis of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey, CFHTLenS, mitigating contamination to the signal from the presence of intrinsic galaxy alignments via the simultaneous fit of a cosmological model and an intrinsic alignment model. CFHTLenS spans 154 square degrees in five optical bands, with accurate shear and photometric redshifts for a galaxy sample with a median redshift of zm =0.70. We estimate the 21 sets of cosmic shear correlation functions associated with six redshift bins, each spanning the angular range of 1.5<theta<35 arcmin. We combine this CFHTLenS data with auxiliary cosmological probes: the cosmic microwave background with data from WMAP7, baryon acoustic oscillations with data from BOSS, and a prior on the Hubble constant from the HST distance ladder. This leads to constraints on the normalisation of the matter power spectrum sigma_8 = 0.799 +/- 0.015 and the matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.271 +/- 0.010 for a flat Lambda CDM cosmology. For a flat wCDM cosmology we constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w = -1.02 +/- 0.09. We also provide constraints for curved Lambda CDM and wCDM cosmologies. We find the intrinsic alignment contamination to be galaxy-type dependent with a significant intrinsic alignment signal found for early-type galaxies, in contrast to the late-type galaxy sample for which the intrinsic alignment signal is found to be consistent with zero.

CFHTLenS: Testing the Laws of Gravity with Tomographic Weak Lensing and Redshift Space Distortions

Authors: F. Simpson, C. Heymans, D. Parkinson, C. Blake, M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2013
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Dark energy may be the first sign of new fundamental physics in the Universe, taking either a physical form or revealing a correction to Einsteinian gravity. Weak gravitational lensing and galaxy peculiar velocities provide complementary probes of General Relativity, and in combination allow us to test modified theories of gravity in a unique way. We perform such an analysis by combining measurements of cosmic shear tomography from the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) with the growth of structure from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey and the Six-degree-Field Galaxy Survey (6dFGS), producing the strongest existing joint constraints on the metric potentials that describe general theories of gravity. For scale-independent modifications to the metric potentials which evolve linearly with the effective dark energy density, we find present-day cosmological deviations in the Newtonian potential and curvature potential from the prediction of General Relativity to be (Delta Psi)/Psi = 0.05 \pm 0.25 and (Delta Phi)/Phi = -0.05 \pm 0.3 respectively (68 per cent CL).

CFHTLenS: Combined probe cosmological model comparison using 2D weak gravitational lensing

Authors: M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2013
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present cosmological constraints from 2D weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) which spans 154 square degrees in five optical bands. Using accurate photometric redshifts and measured shapes for 4.2 million galaxies between redshifts of 0.2 and 1.3, we compute the 2D cosmic shear correlation function over angular scales ranging between 0.8 and 350 arcmin. Using non-linear models of the dark-matter power spectrum, we constrain cosmological parameters by exploring the parameter space with Population Monte Carlo sampling. The best constraints from lensing alone are obtained for the small-scale density-fluctuations amplitude sigma_8 scaled with the total matter density Omega_m. For a flat LambdaCDM model we obtain sigma_8(Omega_m/0.27)^0.6 = 0.79+-0.03.
We combine the CFHTLenS data with WMAP7, BOSS and an HST distance-ladder prior on the Hubble constant to get joint constraints. For a flat LambdaCDM model, we find Omega_m = 0.283+-0.010 and sigma_8 = 0.813+-0.014. In the case of a curved wCDM universe, we obtain Omega_m = 0.27+-0.03, sigma_8 = 0.83+-0.04, w_0 = -1.10+-0.15 and Omega_K = 0.006+0.006-0.004.
We calculate the Bayesian evidence to compare flat and curved LambdaCDM and dark-energy CDM models. From the combination of all four probes, we find models with curvature to be at moderately disfavoured with respect to the flat case. A simple dark-energy model is indistinguishable from LambdaCDM. Our results therefore do not necessitate any deviations from the standard cosmological model.