True CMB Power Spectrum Estimation

 

Authors:  P. Paykari, J. -L. Starck and M. J. Fadili
Journal: Astronomy and Astrophysics
Year: 2012
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum is a powerful cosmological probe as it entails almost all the statistical information of the CMB perturbations. Having access to only one sky, the CMB power spectrum measured by our experiments is only a realization of the true underlying angular power spectrum. In this paper we aim to recover the true underlying CMB power spectrum from the one realization that we have without a need to know the cosmological parameters. The sparsity of the CMB power spectrum is first investigated in two dictionaries; Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Wavelet Transform (WT). The CMB power spectrum can be recovered with only a few percentage of the coefficients in both of these dictionaries and hence is very compressible in these dictionaries. We study the performance of these dictionaries in smoothing a set of simulated power spectra. Based on this, we develop a technique that estimates the true underlying CMB power spectrum from data, i.e. without a need to know the cosmological parameters. This smooth estimated spectrum can be used to simulate CMB maps with similar properties to the true CMB simulations with the correct cosmological parameters. This allows us to make Monte Carlo simulations in a given project, without having to know the cosmological parameters. The developed IDL code, TOUSI, for Theoretical pOwer spectrUm using Sparse estImation, will be released with the next version of ISAP.

CMB map restoration

 

Authors: J. Bobin, J. -L. Starck, F. Sureau and J. Fadili
Journal: A&A
Year: 2012
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Estimating the cosmological microwave background is of utmost importance for cosmology. However, its estimation from full-sky surveys such as WMAP or more recently Planck is challenging: CMB maps are generally estimated via the application of some source separation techniques which never prevent the final map from being contaminated with noise and foreground residuals. These spurious contaminations whether noise or foreground residuals are well-known to be a plague for most cosmologically relevant tests or evaluations; this includes CMB lensing reconstruction or non-Gaussian signatures search. Noise reduction is generally performed by applying a simple Wiener filter in spherical harmonics; however this does not account for the non-stationarity of the noise. Foreground contamination is usually tackled by masking the most intense residuals detected in the map, which makes CMB evaluation harder to perform. In this paper, we introduce a novel noise reduction framework coined LIW-Filtering for Linear Iterative Wavelet Filtering which is able to account for the noise spatial variability thanks to a wavelet-based modeling while keeping the highly desired linearity of the Wiener filter. We further show that the same filtering technique can effectively perform foreground contamination reduction thus providing a globally cleaner CMB map. Numerical results on simulated but realistic Planck data are provided.

Measuring the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe Effect

 

Authors: F. -X. Dupe, A. Rassat, J. -L. Starck and M. J. Fadili
Journal: A&A
Year: 2011
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

One of the main challenges of modern cosmology is to understand the nature of dark energy. The Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is sensitive to dark energy and presents an independent signature of dark energy in the absence of modified gravity and curvature. The ISW effect occurs on large scales, where cosmic variance is high and where there are large amounts of missing data in the CMB and large scale structure maps due to Galactic confusion. Moreover, existing methods in the literature often make strong assumptions about the statistics of the underlying fields or estimators. Together these effects can severely limit signal extraction. We review literature on the ISW effect, comparing statistical subtleties between existing methods, and identifying several limitations. We propose a novel method to detect and measure the ISW signal. This method assumes only that the primordial CMB field is Gaussian. It is based on a sparse inpainting method to reconstruct missing data and uses a bootstrap technique to avoid assumptions about the statistics of the estimator. It is a complete method, using three complementary statistical methods. We apply our method to Euclid-like simulations and show we can expect a 7 sigma model-independent detection of the ISW signal with WMAP7-like data, even with missing data. Other tests return 4.7 sigma detection levels for a Euclid-like survey, with levels independent from whether the galaxy field is normally or lognormally distributed. We apply our method to the 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and WMAP7 CMB data and find detections in the 1.1 - 2.0 sigma range, as expected from simulations. As a by-product, we reconstruct the full-sky temperature ISW field due to 2MASS data. We have presented a novel technique, based on sparse inpainting and bootstrapping, which accurately detects and reconstructs the ISW effect.

Polarized wavelets and curvelets on the sphere

 

Authors:  J. -L. Starck, Y. Moudden, J. Bobin
Journal: Astronomy and Astrophysics
Year: 2009
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

The statistics of the temperature anisotropies in the primordial cosmic microwave background radiation field provide a wealth of information for cosmology and for estimating cosmological parameters. An even more acute inference should stem from the study of maps of the polarization state of the CMB radiation. Measuring the extremely weak CMB polarization signal requires very sensitive instruments. The full-sky maps of both temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB to be delivered by the upcoming Planck Surveyor satellite experiment are hence being awaited with excitement. Multiscale methods, such as isotropic wavelets, steerable wavelets, or curvelets, have been proposed in the past to analyze the CMB temperature map. In this paper, we contribute to enlarging the set of available transforms for polarized data on the sphere. We describe a set of new multiscale decompositions for polarized data on the sphere, including decimated and undecimated Q-U or E-B wavelet transforms and Q-U or E-B curvelets. The proposed transforms are invertible and so allow for applications in data restoration and denoising.

SZ and CMB reconstruction using Generalized Morphological Component Analysis

 

Authors: J. Bobin, Y. Moudden, J.-L. Starck, J. Fadili, N. Aghanim
Journal: Statistical Methodology
Year: 2008
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Non-negative blind source separation (BSS) has raised interest in various fields of research, as testified by the wide literature on the topic of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). In this context, it is fundamental that the sources to be estimated present some diversity in order to be efficiently retrieved. Sparsity is known to enhance such contrast between the sources while producing very robust approaches, especially to noise. In this paper we introduce a new algorithm in order to tackle the blind separation of non-negative sparse sources from noisy measurements. We first show that sparsity and non-negativity constraints have to be carefully applied on the sought-after solution. In fact, improperly constrained solutions are unlikely to be stable and are therefore sub-optimal. The proposed algorithm, named nGMCA (non-negative Generalized Morphological Component Analysis), makes use of proximal calculus techniques to provide properly constrained solutions. The performance of nGMCA compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms is demonstrated by numerical experiments encompassing a wide variety of settings, with negligible parameter tuning. In particular, nGMCA is shown to provide robustness to noise and performs well on synthetic mixtures of real NMR spectra.