Cosmological Parameters Estimation within Growing Neutrinos

Position: Internship
Deadline:  28/02/2019
Contact: V. Pettorino and S.Casas

Dark energy may be triggered by neutrinos with varying mass (https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.02358). The internship is meant to use a MonteCarlo COSMOMC Boltzmann code to test a simplified framework for this scenario using a prescription we have developed already. The student will be able to use data to test theories, using MCMC simulations.  It will involve collaboration with IAP (F.Fuhrer) and Heidelberg (C.Wetterich), potentially leading to a scientific paper. Availability for 6 months is preferred.

Required skills: python and one language between C or fortran. Previous use of CAMB/CLASS/COSMOMC would be an asset. 

 

Cosmological evolution in DHOST theories

 

Authors: M. Crisostomi , K. Koyama, D. Langlois, K. Noui and D. A. Steer
Journal:  
Year: 2018
Download: arXiv


Abstract

In the context of Degenerate Higher-Order Scalar-Tensor (DHOST) theories, we study cosmological solutions and their stability properties. In particular, we explicitly illustrate the crucial role of degeneracy by showing how the higher order homogeneous equations in the physical frame (where matter is minimally coupled) can be recast in a system of equations that do not involve higher order derivatives. We study the fixed points of the dynamics, finding the conditions for having a de Sitter attractor at late times. Then we consider the coupling to matter field (described for convenience by a k-essence Lagrangian) and find the conditions to avoid gradient and ghost instabilities at linear order in cosmological perturbations, extending previous work. Finally, we apply these results to a simple subclass of DHOST theories, showing that de Sitter attractor conditions, no ghost and no gradient instabilities conditions (both in the self-accelerating era and in the matter dominated era) can be compatible.

Testing (modified) gravity with 3D and tomographic cosmic shear

 

Authors: A. Spurio Mancini, R. Reischke, V. Pettorino, B.M. Scháefer, M. Zumalacárregui
Journal: Submitted to MNRAS
Year: 2018
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

Cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing caused by the large-scale structure, is one of the primary probes to test gravity with current and future surveys. There are two main techniques to analyse a cosmic shear survey; a tomographic method, where correlations between the lensing signal in different redshift bins are used to recover redshift information, and a 3D approach, where the full redshift information is carried through the entire analysis. Here we compare the two methods, by forecasting cosmological constraints for future surveys like Euclid. We extend the 3D formalism for the first time to theories beyond the standard model, belonging to the Horndeski class. This includes the majority of universally coupled extensions to LCDM with one scalar degree of freedom in addition to the metric, which are still in agreement with current observations. Given a fixed background, the evolution of linear perturbations in Horndeski gravity is described by a set of four functions of time only. We model their time evolution assuming proportionality to the dark energy density fraction and place Fisher matrix constraints on the proportionality coefficients. We find that a 3D analysis can constrain Horndeski theories better than a tomographic one, in particular with a decrease in the errors on the Horndeski parameters of the order of 20 - 30%. This paper shows for the first time a quantitative comparison on an equal footing between Fisher matrix forecasts for both a fully 3D and a tomographic analysis of cosmic shear surveys. The increased sensitivity of the 3D formalism comes from its ability to retain information on the source redshifts along the entire analysis.


Summary

A new paper has been put on the arXiv, led by Alessio Spurio Mancini, PhD student of CosmoStat member Valeria Pettorino in collaboration with R. Reischke, B.M. Scháefer (Heidelberg) and M. Zumalacárregui (Berkeley LBNL and Paris Saclay IPhT).
The authors investigate the performance of a 3D analysis of cosmic shear measurements vs a tomographic analysis as a probe of Horndeski theories of modified gravity, setting constraints by means of a Fisher matrix analysis on the parameters that describe the evolution of linear perturbations, using the specifications of a future Euclid-like experiment. Constraints are shown on both the modified gravity parameters and on a set of standard cosmological parameters, including the sum of neutrino masses. The analysis is restricted to angular modes ell < 1000 and k < 1 h/Mpc to avoid the deeply non-linear regime of structure growth. Below the main results of the paper.

 
  • The signal-to-noise ratio of both a 3D analysis as well as a tomographic one is very similar.
  • 3D cosmic shear provides tighter constraints than tomography for most cosmological parameters, with both methods showing very similar degeneracies.
  • The gain of 3D vs tomography is particularly significant for the sum of the neutrino masses (factor 3). For the Horndeski parameters the
    gain is of the order of 20 - 30 % in the errors.
  •  In Horndeski theories, braiding and the effective Newton coupling parameters (\alpha_B and \alpha_M) are constrained better if the kineticity is higher.
  • We investigated the impact on non-linear scales, and introduced an artificial screening scale, which pushes the deviations from General Relativity to zero below its value.  The gain when including the non-linear signal calls for the development of analytic or semi-analytic prescriptions for the treatment of non-linear scales in ΛCDM and modified gravity.

Self-accelerating universe in scalar-tensor theories after GW170817

 

Authors: Marco Crisostomi and Kazuya Koyama
Journal: PRD
Year: 2018
Download: arXiv


Abstract

The recent simultaneous detection of gravitational waves and a gamma ray burst from a neutron star merger significantly shrank the space of viable scalar-tensor theories by demanding that the speed of gravity is equal to that of light. The survived theories belong to the class of degenerate higher order scalar-tensor theories. We study whether these theories are suitable as dark energy candidates. We find scaling solutions in the matter dominated universe that lead to de Sitter solutions at late times without the cosmological constant, realising self-acceleration. We evaluate quasi-static perturbations around self-accelerating solutions and show that the stringent constraints coming from astrophysical objects and gravitational waves can be satisfied, leaving interesting possibilities to test these theories by cosmological observations.

Vainshtein mechanism after GW170817

 

Authors: Marco Crisostomi and Kazuya Koyama
Journal: PRD
Year: 2018
Download: arXiv


Abstract

The almost simultaneous detection of gravitational waves and a short gamma-ray burst from a neutron star merger has put a tight constraint on the difference between the speed of gravity and light. In the four-dimensional scalar-tensor theory with second order equations of motion, the Horndeski theory, this translates into a significant reduction of the viable parameter space of the theory. Recently, extensions of Horndeski theory, which are free from Ostrogradsky ghosts despite the presence of higher order derivatives in the equations of motion, have been identified and classified exploiting the degeneracy criterium. In these new theories, the fifth force mediated by the scalar field must be suppressed in order to evade the stringent Solar System constraints. We study the Vainshtein mechanism in the most general degenerate higher order scalar-tensor theory in which light and gravity propagate at the same speed. We find that the Vainshtein mechanism generally works outside a matter source but it is broken inside matter, similarly to beyond Horndeski theories. This leaves interesting possibilities to test these theories that are compatible with gravitational wave observations using astrophysical objects.