Precision calculations of the cosmic shear power spectrum projection

Authors: M. Kilbinger, C. Heymans, M. Asgari et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2017
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We compute the spherical-sky weak-lensing power spectrum of the shear and convergence. We discuss various approximations, such as flat-sky, and first- and second- order Limber equations for the projection. We find that the impact of adopting these approximations are negligible when constraining cosmological parameters from current weak lensing surveys. This is demonstrated using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We find that the reported tension with Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy results cannot be alleviated, in contrast to the recent claim made by Kitching et al. (2016, version 1). For future large-scale surveys with unprecedented precision, we show that the spherical second-order Limber approximation will provide sufficient accuracy. In this case, the cosmic-shear power spectrum is shown to be in agreement with the full projection at the sub-percent level for l > 3, with the corresponding errors an order of magnitude below cosmic variance for all l. When computing the two-point shear correlation function, we show that the flat-sky fast Hankel transformation results in errors below two percent compared to the full spherical transformation. In the spirit of reproducible research, our numerical implementation of all approximations and the full projection are publicly available within the package nicaea at http://www.cosmostat.org/software/nicaea.


Summary

We discuss various methods to calculate projections for weak gravitational lensing: Since lenses galaxies pick up matter inhomogeneities of the cosmic web along the line of sight while photons from the galaxies propagate through the Universe to the observer, these inhomogeneities have to be projected to a 2D observable, the cumulative shear or convergence. The full projection involves three-dimensional integrals over highly oscillating Bessel functions, and can be time-consuming to compute numerically to high accuracy. Most previous work have therefore used approximations such as the Limber approximation, that reduce the integrals to 1D, and thereby neglecting modes along the line of sight.

The authors show that these projections are more than adequate for present surveys. Sub-percent accuracy is reached for l>20, for example as shown by the pink curve, which is the ratio of the case 'ExtL1Hyb' to the full projection. The abbreviation means 'extended', corresponding to the improved approximation introduced by LoVerde & Afshordi (2008), first-order Limber, and hybrid, since this is a hybrid between flat-sky and spherical coordinates. This case has been used in most of the recent publications (e.g. for KiDS), whereas the cast 'L1Fl' (first-order Limber flat-sky) was popular for most publications since 2014.

These approximations are sufficient for the small areas of current observations coming from CFHTLenS, KiDS, and DES, and well below cosmic variance of even future surveys (the figure shows Euclid - 15,000 deg2 and Kids -1,500 deg2).

K17_Fig1b

The paper then discusses the second-order Limber approximation, introduced in a general framework by LoVerde & Afshordi (2008), and applied to weak lensing in the current paper. The best 2nd-order case 'ExtL2Sph' reaches sub-percent accuracy down to l=3, sufficient for all future surveys.

The paper also computes the shear correlation function in real space, and shows that those approximations have a very minor influence.

We then go on to re-compute the cosmological constraints obtained in Kilbinger et al. (2013), and find virtually no change when choosing different approximations. Only the depreciated case 'ExtL1Fl' makes a noticeable difference, which is however still well within the statistical error bars. This case shows a particular slow convergence to the full projection.

Similar results have been derived in two other recent publications, Kitching et al. (2017), and Lemos, Challinor & Efstathiou (2017).
Note however that Kitching et al. (2017) conclude that errors from projection approximations of the types we discussed here (Limber, flat sky) could make up to 11% of the error budget of future surveys. This is however assuming the worst-case scenario including the deprecated cast 'ExtL1Fl', and we do not share their conclusion, but think that for example the projection 'ExtL2Sph' is sufficient for future surveys such as LSST and Euclid.

The galaxy-halo connection from a joint lensing, clustering and abundance analysis in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field

Authors: J. Coupon et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2015
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Abstract

We present new constraints on the relationship between galaxies and their host dark matter halos, measured from the location of the peak of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR), up to the most massive galaxy clusters at redshift

z0.8z\sim0.8

and over a volume of nearly 0.1~Gpc

3^3

. We use a unique combination of deep observations in the CFHTLenS/VIPERS field from the near-UV to the near-IR, supplemented by

60000\sim60\,000

secure spectroscopic redshifts, analysing galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing and the stellar mass function. We interpret our measurements within the halo occupation distribution (HOD) framework, separating the contributions from central and satellite galaxies. We find that the SHMR for the central galaxies peaks at

Mh,peak=1.90.1+0.2×1012MM_{\rm h, peak} = 1.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1}\times10^{12} M_{\odot}

with an amplitude of

0.0250.025

, which decreases to

0.001\sim0.001

for massive halos (

Mh>1014MM_{\rm h} > 10^{14} M_{\odot}

). Compared to central galaxies only, the total SHMR (including satellites) is boosted by a factor 10 in the high-mass regime (cluster-size halos), a result consistent with cluster analyses from the literature based on fully independent methods. After properly accounting for differences in modelling, we have compared our results with a large number of results from the literature up to

z=1z=1

: we find good general agreement, independently of the method used, within the typical stellar-mass systematic errors at low to intermediate mass (

M<1011M{M}_{\star} < 10^{11} M_{\odot}

) and the statistical errors above. We have also compared our SHMR results to semi-analytic simulations and found that the SHMR is tilted compared to our measurements in such a way that they over- (under-) predict star formation efficiency in central (satellite) galaxies.

A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts I. Comparison with N-body Simulations

Authors: C.-A. Lin, M. Kilbinger.
Journal: A&A 576, A24
Year: 2015
Download: ADS | arXiv

 


Abstract

Weak-lensing peak counts has been shown to be a powerful tool for cosmology. It provides non-Gaussian information of large scale structures, complementary to second order statistics. We propose a new flexible method to predict weak lensing peak counts, which can be adapted to realistic scenarios, such as a real source distribution, intrinsic galaxy alignment, mask effects, photo-z errors from surveys, etc. The new model is also suitable for applying the tomography technique and non-linear filters. A probabilistic approach to model peak counts is presented. First, we sample halos from a mass function. Second, we assign them NFW profiles. Third, we place those halos randomly on the field of view. The creation of these "fast simulations" requires much less computing time compared to N-body runs. Then, we perform ray-tracing through these fast simulation boxes and select peaks from weak-lensing maps to predict peak number counts. The computation is achieved by our \textsc{Camelus} algorithm, which we make available at this http URL. We compare our results to N-body simulations to validate our model. We find that our approach is in good agreement with full N-body runs. We show that the lensing signal dominates shape noise and Poisson noise for peaks with SNR between 4 and 6. Also, counts from the same SNR range are sensitive to Ωm and σ8. We show how our model can discriminate between various combinations of those two parameters. In summary, we offer a powerful tool to study weak lensing peaks. The potential of our forward model is its high flexibility, making the use of peak counts under realistic survey conditions feasible.


Summary

A new, probabilistic model for weak-lensing peak counts is being proposed in this first paper of a series of three. The model is based on drawing halos from the mass function and, via ray-tracing, generating weak-lensing maps to count peaks. These simulated maps can directly be compared to observations, making this a forward-modelling approach of the cluster mass function, in contrast to many other traditional methods using cluster probes such as X-ray, optical richness, or SZ observations.

The model prediction is in very good agreement with N-body simulations.

It is very flexible, and can potentially include astrophysical and observational effects, such as intrinsic alignment, halo triaxiality, masking, photo-z errors, etc. Moreover, the pdf of the number of peaks can be output by the model, allowing for a very general likelihood calculation, without e.g. assuming a Gaussian distribution of the observables.

 

CFHTLenS tomographic weak lensing: Quantifying accurate redshift distributions

Authors: J. Benjamin, L. Van Waerbeke, C. Heymans, M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2013
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) comprises deep multi-colour (u*g'r'i'z') photometry spanning 154 square degrees, with accurate photometric redshifts and shape measurements. We demonstrate that the redshift probability distribution function summed over galaxies provides an accurate representation of the galaxy redshift distribution accounting for random and catastrophic errors for galaxies with best fitting photometric redshifts z_p < 1.3.
We present cosmological constraints using tomographic weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure. We use two broad redshift bins 0.5 < z_p <= 0.85 and 0.85 < z_p <= 1.3 free of intrinsic alignment contamination, and measure the shear correlation function on angular scales in the range ~1-40 arcmin. We show that the problematic redshift scaling of the shear signal, found in previous CFHTLS data analyses, does not afflict the CFHTLenS data. For a flat Lambda-CDM model and a fixed matter density Omega_m=0.27, we find the normalisation of the matter power spectrum sigma_8=0.771 \pm 0.041. When combined with cosmic microwave background data (WMAP7), baryon acoustic oscillation data (BOSS), and a prior on the Hubble constant from the HST distance ladder, we find that CFHTLenS improves the precision of the fully marginalised parameter estimates by an average factor of 1.5-2. Combining our results with the above cosmological probes, we find Omega_m=0.2762 \pm 0.0074 and sigma_8=0.802 \pm 0.013.

CFHTLenS tomographic weak lensing cosmological parameter constraints: Mitigating the impact of intrinsic galaxy alignments

Authors: C. Heymans, E. Grocutt, A. Heavens, M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2013
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present a finely-binned tomographic weak lensing analysis of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey, CFHTLenS, mitigating contamination to the signal from the presence of intrinsic galaxy alignments via the simultaneous fit of a cosmological model and an intrinsic alignment model. CFHTLenS spans 154 square degrees in five optical bands, with accurate shear and photometric redshifts for a galaxy sample with a median redshift of zm =0.70. We estimate the 21 sets of cosmic shear correlation functions associated with six redshift bins, each spanning the angular range of 1.5<theta<35 arcmin. We combine this CFHTLenS data with auxiliary cosmological probes: the cosmic microwave background with data from WMAP7, baryon acoustic oscillations with data from BOSS, and a prior on the Hubble constant from the HST distance ladder. This leads to constraints on the normalisation of the matter power spectrum sigma_8 = 0.799 +/- 0.015 and the matter density parameter Omega_m = 0.271 +/- 0.010 for a flat Lambda CDM cosmology. For a flat wCDM cosmology we constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter w = -1.02 +/- 0.09. We also provide constraints for curved Lambda CDM and wCDM cosmologies. We find the intrinsic alignment contamination to be galaxy-type dependent with a significant intrinsic alignment signal found for early-type galaxies, in contrast to the late-type galaxy sample for which the intrinsic alignment signal is found to be consistent with zero.

CFHTLenS: Combined probe cosmological model comparison using 2D weak gravitational lensing

Authors: M. Kilbinger, et al.
Journal: MNRAS
Year: 2013
Download: ADS | arXiv


Abstract

We present cosmological constraints from 2D weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Canada-France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) which spans 154 square degrees in five optical bands. Using accurate photometric redshifts and measured shapes for 4.2 million galaxies between redshifts of 0.2 and 1.3, we compute the 2D cosmic shear correlation function over angular scales ranging between 0.8 and 350 arcmin. Using non-linear models of the dark-matter power spectrum, we constrain cosmological parameters by exploring the parameter space with Population Monte Carlo sampling. The best constraints from lensing alone are obtained for the small-scale density-fluctuations amplitude sigma_8 scaled with the total matter density Omega_m. For a flat LambdaCDM model we obtain sigma_8(Omega_m/0.27)^0.6 = 0.79+-0.03.
We combine the CFHTLenS data with WMAP7, BOSS and an HST distance-ladder prior on the Hubble constant to get joint constraints. For a flat LambdaCDM model, we find Omega_m = 0.283+-0.010 and sigma_8 = 0.813+-0.014. In the case of a curved wCDM universe, we obtain Omega_m = 0.27+-0.03, sigma_8 = 0.83+-0.04, w_0 = -1.10+-0.15 and Omega_K = 0.006+0.006-0.004.
We calculate the Bayesian evidence to compare flat and curved LambdaCDM and dark-energy CDM models. From the combination of all four probes, we find models with curvature to be at moderately disfavoured with respect to the flat case. A simple dark-energy model is indistinguishable from LambdaCDM. Our results therefore do not necessitate any deviations from the standard cosmological model.